Oil Industry in Saudi Arabia

Introduction
The oil market is normally oligopoly since the industry normally has a few firms although the large proportion of the output in the industry shared among a few firms. Oil is one of the commodities heavily traded in the entire world. The oil demand, on the other hand, normally prices inelastic as a result of the versatility in its uses. The fluctuations in the oil prices play a significant role in the impacts for the oil exporters/producers as well as the fact that most of the nations around the world are dependent on oil being their chief energy source.

Body

Saudi Arabia is among the most rapidly growing nations in the greater Middle East regions. The development of the country’s oil sector is the main attribute that has been making it possible for the major improvement of the county’s position in the context of the international community. The evident increase energy needs in the world have contributed to the rapid development of the nations that have major oil productions, with Saudi Arabia the main country. The economy of Saudi Arabia is heavily dependent upon their oil industries. The ministry of petroleum, as well as mineral resources, offers the estimation that more than 90% of the expert in the country are normally from the proceeds of the oil export (Fattouh 2013). The export of oils into the world markets contributes more than 40% of the country’s GDP. Additionally the common assertion is that Saudi Arabia is world’s second largest producer of crude oil as well as an exporter.

For decades, the Saudi Arabian economic development has been dependent on their strong success in the oil industry. The country is world’s largest producer as well as exporter of the petroleum products and at the same time is a second largest producer of crude oil after Russia. Their economy is also dependent on the oil as well as the oil related industries encompassing the refinery of petroleum as well as petrochemicals. At the same time, Saudi Arabia is the biggest consumer of energy in the Middle East countries mainly as a result of their growing population as well as the large-scale development projects they are undertaking (Aissaoui 2013). The large government subsidies on fuel as well as the historically high prices of oil are the main causes that have been stimulating domestic consumption.

Considering the country’s high levels of production, it accounts for approximately 13% of world’s oil output and consequently almost 35% of the overall OPEC annual oil productions. The country has become a major determinant of the world oil demand as well as supply implying that the country’s oil production policies cold have a far-reaching effect on international oil prices (Naimi, 2012). From the 1970s, Saudi Arabia has been using their dominance to influence the prices of oil and consequently further their objectives in the sustenance of the long-term oil consumption. Additionally they have been using their dominance to promote their economic stability in the context of the industrialized world.

Reserves
Research indicates that Saudi Arabia possesses approximately 266 billion of oil reserves that have already proven which accounts for 16% of all the proved oil reserves in the world. Even though the country has approximately 100 main oil as well as gas fields, over 8 of their fields are normally located in the country’s northeast portion (Fattouh and van der Linde 2011). The giant Ghawar oil field is the world’s biggest field in the context of production as well as overall remaining reserves.

Production
The country produced an average of 11.8 million bbl/d of the overall oil liquids in the year 2013. The total production of the petroleum products, however, declined by 0.14 million bbl/d from the year 2012 which was their first decline since the year 2009 (Fattouh and van der Linde 2011). Additionally the country declined it oil production in the year 2013 with the objective of accommodating the non-OPEC production development from the country as Canada as well as the US.

Processing
Saudi Aramco is the firm that operates the world’s biggest oil processing facility in addition to a crude oil stabilization plant. It additionally possesses a crude oil processing capacity of over 7 million bbl/d. The efforts by Saudi Arabia to maintain their leading position in the international oil market has been the foundation of their economic policies from the beginning of the 1990s. Although the country has been making attempts aimed at diversifying their economy, the development of a self-propagating mo oil sector has been a very difficult task for the Saudi planners (Naimi, 2012). The government none the less has been able to offer above-average living standards for its citizens as well as the development of a world-class infrastructure basis as well as the social services. However, the sustenance of these living standards, however, is greatly dependent chiefly on the spending of the government which relies on the revenues from its oil industries. In this case, it is not possible for the Saudi Arabian government to neglect their oil industry as it has proven to be their chief economic engine.

The development of the oil industry is additionally a significant attribute in the promotion of the domestic political stability. In the early production days, it was evident that there was going to be the reduction in the Russia as well as from the other OPEC countries. Consequently, the country realized an opportunity to develop their disproportionate share of the net increment in the crude oil demand over the following years. With the objective of realizing their endeavor, the country focused on expanding their oil industry and consequently augments their production capacities. Also, the country embarked on the plans for upgrading their refineries with the objective of meeting the contemporary environmental standards in the west as well as their growing domestic demand.

The oil production in Saudi Arabia negatively correlated with those of other OPEC producing nations and consequently has been highly volatile although the country has not experienced any political shocks. Saudi Arabia sets its oil output in the anticipation that there is going to be the reaction of the fringe as well as maximize their profits relying on the residual demand (Naimi, 2012). The additional evident that is available from the various literature is that Saudi does not vary the output of their oil industries about the demand changes in the international markets. Instead of Saudi acting as the dominant oil producer, the country adopts a tit for tat strategy in punishing their members who produce beyond their quotas while at the same time rewarding those who normally comply.

Understand Legal and Ethical Issues of Assisted Suicide

1. Discuss the legal rules and regulations on assisted suicide: one state legalizes the assisted suicide, and the other state does not.

In the United States, Oregon and Washington have legalized physician-assisted suicide. This law established by states provides citizens in the state with a right to assisted suicide commonly known as ‘death with dignity.’ In these states, physicians are empowered to aid patients to end their life and have been provided with a legal excuse to a charge of assisted suicide. The law in these states gives specific conditions when and under what circumstances a patient can be allowed to get assistance to end their life. Some of the requirements include that the patient is expected to die within a specified period and that the procedure must follow certain consent guidelines.

In states where there is no law legalizing physician-assisted suicide, an individual or a physician is guilty of promoting suicide attempt when they intentional leads to or assists another person attempt suicide.

2. Discuss the legal issues on assisted suicide (e.g., 2nd-degree murder).

The legal issues arising from physician-assisted suicide is that doctors can be charged with second-degree murder as they would be killing or aiding in the death of a patient intentionally. The legal perspective of homicide is described by the act of bringing about their death or assisting in ending their life, which is the act of assisted suicide. In care facilities, a legal issue arises when a doctor whose responsibility is to do good, aids in the death of a patient who requests assistance to commit suicide. The doctor may be charged and found guilty of assisting another person to commit suicide.

3. Discuss the ethical issues of assisted suicide (e.g., right to die).

Various ethical issues arising from traditions of nursing and medicine have led to opposition of assisted suicide by nursing and medical organizations. The patient’s in care facilities have a right to know their prognosis to make decisions concerning the implementation of life-prolonging treatment. Although patients have a right to make a decision about what they want, the ethical issue that arises is whether they are mentally competent and can make properly informed end of life decisions about their condition. Also, an ethical issue that arises from a patient who has a right to die and seeking to end their life since they are suffering is whether the suffering should be viewed according to the patient’s view or considered in other people’s perspective. An ethical issue on assisted suicide on an individual who has a right to die is whether the approach used is widely acceptable.

4. Shall the person (i.e., a family member) be charged a crime (e.g., murder), who has provided any kind of assistance to another person’s suicide?

A family member who provides any kind of assistance to another individual so as to assist end their life is guilty and may be charged with a crime of manslaughter. The crime is that the person purposely aids another commit suicide regardless of whether the patient was willing or made own decision to end their life. The kind of assistance may include giving advice on how to end life, giving a book that provides guidelines on suicide or even providing pills or medicine or other physical means that causes death.

5. Your feedback and solutions to the issues of assisted suicide, legal and ethical

The subject of assisted suicide whether by a family member or an organization or a physician raises sharp contrasting opinions. Individuals commit or have thoughts of committing suicide for various reasons that range from ending the suffering caused by terminal illnesses or other problems. Governments and states should formulate and enforce laws that prohibit assisted suicide without proper guidelines or advice. The individuals seeking advice on assisted suicide or those who want to commit suicide should have adequate knowledge of the outcome of their actions. Federal and state government should also increase assistance to patients who are suffering or have pain due to some illness.

Telenursing

Introduction
Telenursing is the utilization of technology to conduct nursing practice and deliver nursing care. The use of technology has changed the delivery medium of nursing care. It has necessitated competencies related to its use to deliver nursing care. Practitioners engaged in telenursing plan, assess, evaluate and intervene the outcomes of nursing care. Technologies commonly used in this practice include computers, Internet, telephones, telemonitoring equipment and digital assessment tools. The term telehealth is used to describe the breadth of health services provided through communication technologies. The paper will explore telenursing as a specialty of telehealth. Advantages and disadvantages for the patient and legal and ethical principles for the nurse of this technology will be explored. These will be used as the basis for decision-making and whether it is a good fit for me.

Advantages and disadvantages for the patient
Advantages
Diagnosis and Consultation
Research evidence shows increased success of diagnosis of diseases. Telenursing has productively been used as a tool for diagnosing acute conditions including leukemia. In addition to diagnosis, nurses can provide educational sessions or other patient education efforts. Telenursing has been shown to be a successful undertaking for nurses in patient education as it offers two-way video and audio technology. Nurses also have benefited from consultations through telehealth tools. Just as in patient education, nurses can use the two-way audio and video technology to consult with other providers. For example, home health nurses may use technology to consult with physicians or specialists regarding a particular patient (Hebda & Czar, 2013).

Monitoring and Surveillance
Adherence and compliance problems are among the various issues that are essential to achieving patient safety. After patients leave a facility, they take responsibility for their own health care at home. Patients may not always follow treatment plans as directed by providers or physician due to various factors, including wrong understanding and miscommunication of the treatment plan, complex treatment schedule that requires additional guidance for the patients to comprehend and the lack of access to facilities required for the treatment plan. This can cause negative outcomes and creates safety issues for the patient. Therefore, these technologies provide nurses with efficient tools of caring for patients. The use of these technologies improves adherence or compliance to the prescribed regimen of care. They also allow effective symptom management. Telenursing is one strategy that nurses currently use to monitor and communicate with patients beyond the acute care setting. It also reduces health care utilization rates for acute care services by reducing visits to the Emergency Department (Hebda & Czar, 2013).

Clinical and Health Services outcomes
Telenursing has been associated with an improvement in clinical and health service outcomes. Technologies have been used in the management of chronic conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure and diabetes. Mortality and morbidity are the outcomes measured for these patients. Telenursing shows better outcomes in these areas. More specifically, telenursing technology has been shown to be an important tool in health intervention. For example, nurses can induce communication to help patient reduce HbA1c levels. They may also offer assistance to patients with traumatic brain injury in their transitioning from the hospital to the community. In addition to these technologies, other devices and applications are also making a difference in patient health care and safety. Essentially, telehealth technologies have replaced traditional care as practical alternatives (Hebda & Czar, 2013).

Reduction of cost
With telephone-based telenursing, there is relatively no technical setup required for interaction or cost to the patient. Many individuals own a cell phone in their home that can be utilized during sessions. Often, nurses limit telephone discussions to education or counseling as there are no visual cues for the telenurse. Technologies offer more and broader potential for telenursing practice. With telehealth technologies, patient access to care is improved; adherence to care increases and providers network with each other improves. Nurses can also closely monitor safety of patients at homes or alternative living facilities. The evident improvement in patient’s outcome has an indirect impact on cost of delivery of services (Hebda & Czar, 2013).

Disadvantages
As the use of technology increases in nursing profession, cost, privacy, autonomy, security and confidentiality issues have emerged. Facilities invest heavily in the security of patient information. These measures call for significant allocation of resources interms of human resources and money. Thus, the use of telecommunication increases the costs of purchase and operations of these equipments. These costs are passed on to consumers of health. Patients meet these costs through charges to health services. Health organizations are also faced with continued threat of as the need for confidentiality and security of patient data remain in the forefront of telenursing. On the other hand, Laws and regulations continue to place requirements for the protection of personal information. Data breach incidents have more impact than government fines, publicized lawsuits, and labor or union disputes. Breaches also have an impact on patients. Another disadvantage of telenursing is the technicality associated with the use of specific technologies. Telehealth technology differs and can range from telephone calls postoperatively to live, interactive voice and video patient education to using a popular video game system and downloadable data devices (Schlachta et al., 2010).

Legal and ethical principles for the nurse
With telenursing, confidentiality remains a concern that must always be addressed. Telehealth sessions must remain confidential interaction between a provider and a patient. Information privacy is the relationship between technology, collection and sharing of data, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and related issues surrounding them. Privacy concerns exist when there is sensitive information or personally identifiable information that might be of interest to other parties. Maintenance of information privacy is a risk management issue for any organization (Greenberg, 2000).

The security risks increase with the extraordinary utilization of internet services due to the advent of cloud computing. Hence, training is a necessary component of an organization’s security practices. Hospitals are forced to instead focus on making information system users intrinsic to the security processes through awareness, training and information rather than focusing purely on implementing technologies. Technologies such as firewalls, intrusion detection system, intrusion prevention system, antivirus content filtering and encryption are commonly implemented to reduce the risk of cyber attacks. While such technologies are widely available to help hospitals mitigate the risk of intentional and unintentional threats, their effectiveness is limited if security threats and risks fail to focus on user intrinsic components of the organization’s ICT system. Computer dependency, false sense of entitlement and ethical flexibility increases the security risk to the disadvantage of the medical facility. This exposes health facilities to risks of security and data breach. In the long run, this may compromise patients’ safety (Greenberg, 2000).

Conclusion and Recommendations
Innovative technologies are employed in nursing practice to improve patient care and thus improve safety. Technologies range from the ubiquitous computing to simple telephone and only promise more in the future. The research on telenursing practice shows significant benefits related to consultations, diagnosis surveillance and monitoring of patients, technology advancement and clinical and health services outcomes. These areas have considerable patient safety concerns. On the other hand, special concerns in relation to patient safety have emerged with this method of health care delivery. As the use of technology increases in nursing profession, cost, privacy, autonomy, security and confidentiality issues have emerged. A job in telenursing is in my future. The pro of this decision is that I will get to work in a field that has shown high potential of growth in the future. The con of this decision is that ability to safeguard data is important as personal information increasingly continues to be collected.