Factors that influence disease


A 24-year-old white man has a diagnosis of hemophilia at the age of about 5 to 6 years. He has recently visited the hematology clinic for the follow-up after hospitalization for an accidental knife cut that caused excessive bleeding. The patient has a history of excessive bleeding from tooth extraction, excessive bruising since childhood and the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the past three years. He has reported chronic pain of his joints and ankles and denied hemarthroses. The patient has given reports about the episodes of excessive bleeding treatment by use of factor VIII and fresh frozen plasma (Remor, 2013).

The patient has the FVIII deficiency (hemophilia A) which is a common type of hemophilia that affects about 5, 000 males at births. The disease approximately affects about 25, 000 people in the United States. Individuals with hemophilia suffer from deficiencies in clotting factor. The mild hemophilia bleedings problems do mainly occur after surgery, trauma and injury. The condition can accompany some symptoms. Almost 25% of the population with hemophilia has the mild deficiency. Those with moderate hemophilia experience bleeding episodes after minor injuries and may lead to spontaneous episodes of bleeding. The server hemophilia happens after trauma, injury and surgery. It has the spontaneous bleeding into muscles and joints characteristics. Recurrent bleeding of the joints also known as hemarthrosis causes hemophilic arthropathy that causes disability at a very young age (Department of Genetics 2015).


Hemophilia is a disease happening as a result of gene mutation, and it is a genetic disease. About 70% of hemophilia cases are inheritable from parents. However, the other 30% of patients do not have the family history. In such cases, the main cause of the condition is by a spontaneous gene mutation during the fertilization stage. Hemophilia is also a condition that is linked to sex since the FIX and FVIII geneses are found on the X chromosome. It is the chromosome X that determines the gender of the baby. Thus, the condition’s clinical manifestation has a link to sex. Therefore, females may not express the bleeding symptom like the males (McPhee, & Hammer, 2012).

The main source of factor VIII (FVIII) production is thought to be from the reticuloendothelial and the liver system. Transplantation of the liver can correct FVIII deficiency to persons with hemophilia. It is because of the increasing cases of individuals with mild hemophilia having progressive liver diseases. Thus, it is an indication that the liver is the main site for FVIII synthesis (Cayir, Yavuzer, and Sayli, 2014).

The RNA messenger for FVIII is also detectable in spleen and liver among other issues. Studies indicate that the production of FVIII in cells lines that are transferable show that after synthesis the FVIII shifts to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. It is then within other protection that functions in regulating secretion. It particularly regulates the immunoglobulin binding protein in which it has to dissociate in a process that depends on energy. The FVIII’s signal peptide cleavage, as well as oligosaccharides, also takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum. The calnexin, chaperone proteins, and calreticulin, enhance both FVIII degradation and secretion. Regarding genes, the location of the FVIII (F8C) is at the X chromosome arm at Xq28 region. This gene becomes large comprising of 25 intones and 26 exons. A mature FVIII will have about 2332 amino acids. FVIII deficiency is as a result of gene inversion that causes disrupt to the FVIII gene. The disruptions are insertions, point mutations, and deletions. The low levels of FVIII happen as results of external FVIII gene defects (Huether, &McCance, 2012).

Disaster backup/disaster recovery

Database backup
In information technology, backup is the process of copying and archiving the computer data so that one can use it to restore the original after an event of data loss occurs (Mullins, 2012). There are two distinct purposes of backups. One is to recover the data after its loss maybe because of data deletion or corruption. The data loss may be a common experience of the computer users. The second purpose of the backup is to recover the data from the earlier time according to the user-defined data retention policy. There are two divisions of the backups that include the logical and the physical backups (Dafoulas & Ward 2011). The logical backups usually contain the logical data from the database with the Oracle export utility. It is stored in a binary file so as to help in later re-importing to a database using the corresponding Oracle import utility. On the other hand, the physical backup refers to the backup of the physical files that is used for storing and also recovering databases such as the control files and the data files. It is a copy of the files storing database information to another location whether it is on offline storage or a disk.

The database backup tends to form a duplicate of the data when the backup is complete. With a backup, it is easy for an individual to recreate the whole database from the backup in just one step that involves restoring the database. During restoring, it is a process that involves overwriting the existing database or it may create a database in case it does not exist (Dafoulas & Ward 2011). During backup, it is a process that tends to use a lot of storage space for every backup, and it also requires more time so as to completely backup all the operations.

With the Oracle backup, the types of backups include the logical backup, cold backup, and the hot backups. The hot backup is a backup of the data while it is running. Oracle tends to have RMAN which usually ensures the success in the hot backup. A cold backup is a backup that involves the offline physical backup, which is a process that happens when the database is not operating. It is a type of backup that accommodates all of the essential data files and other database components (Snedaker, 2014). On the other side, the logical backup is that backup of the tablespace, schemas, and whole database. Since an organization has a large amount of data, it is essential for the database administrators to use the automatic backup utilities that are available in a database such as ORACLE.

Any of the backup strategies used tends to start with the data repository. The backup data should be stored and organized to a degree. Other types of data backups include the full backup, differential backup, incremental backup, and mirror backup. The differential backup is the backup that includes all the files that changed since the last full backup. The incremental backup is the backup including files that changed in the last backup process (Snedaker, 2014). The full backup refers to the initial process of the backup that includes all the files and folders. Mirror backup is the backup of all files of the data that changed since the last full backup.

Disaster planning
Disaster planning is important as it helps in ensuring the continuation of the business processes if a disaster happens. Disaster is a term that is relative since disasters tend to occur in varying degrees. Disaster planning is essential as it offers an effective solution to use in recovering all the vital business processes (Whitman et al. 2013). The disaster recovery plan tends to offer the procedures for handling emergency situations. In disaster planning, the plan must offer information for the proactive handling of the crisis and must include detailed procedures for communication, executives, investor relations, human resources, and technology management. The plan must also document the procedures, responsibilities, and the checklist to use in managing and controlling the situation following the crisis.

Disaster planning tends to offer a state of readiness that allows prompt personnel response after a disaster occurs. It tends to provide a more efficient and effective recovery process. A disaster recovery plan must be able to accomplish several objectives. These objectives include managing the recovery operation in an effective and organized manner, recovering information and data imperative to the operation of critical applications (Mullins, 2012). It should also assess the damage, repair damage, and activate the impaired computer center. Every business tends to have the responsibility of responding to short or long term disruption of the services. Developing, documenting, implementing and testing the disaster recovery plan enable the business to restore the availability of the critical applications in an organized and timely manner after the occurrence of a disaster.

The advantages of disaster planning are that it results in improved technology. An organization requires improving IT systems so as to support the recovery objectives that you develop in disaster planning. The attention that one pays to recoverability leads to making the IT systems more consistent with each other. Disaster planning also results to improved business process. Since the business processes tend to undergo analysis and scrutiny, the administrators may not help but find areas that need improvement (Whitman et al. 2013). Disaster planning also benefits the organization through fewer disruptions. Because of improved technology, the IT systems are more stable than in the past. When one make changes to the system architecture so as to meet the recovery objectives, the events that used to cause outage do not do so anymore. Disaster planning also offers a competitive advantage because having good disaster recovery plan provides the organization with bragging rights that cab outshines the competitors. Disaster recovery plan tends to allow the organization to claim higher reliability and availability of services.

During disaster planning, it is significant that one should define the strategy to follow when employing the required softness to ensure the principles of detection, prevention, and response to the disaster. Such a strategy tends to define the activities that people will participate in when a disaster occurs, and it has a plan for explaining how to conduct the activities. It is essential for the organization to set the priorities of the processes and operations that they should perform. A disaster recovery plan is essential for the company as it contains the action that will help reduce the impact of the disaster and enable the organization to resumes its operation as fast as possible (Schin, 2014). It is an important aspect of the organization because it helps the organization save a lot of costs that it would incur if it never had a disaster recovery plan.

Importance of integrating backups and disaster planning
Database recovery is an essential aspect of disaster recovery. The purpose of the database backup is so as to safeguard the data in the case that a disruptive event occurs. The disaster planning aims at safeguarding the data and also the physical devices. It is important to integrate database backups and disaster planning as they work as complementary to each other when both of them are not properly implemented. Integrating database backup and disaster planning are important as backup database help in deciding the data to keep a backup for, and disaster planning helps in selecting the suitable backup plan for the physical storage of the data (Schin, 2014). Disaster planning is important as it helps to pinpoint the likely areas for problems. During planning, one need to assign tasks to different people so that everyone can know what is expected of them. Then again, backing up data and storing the copy off site may help to ensure that if a disaster strikes, one can move on without a lot of disruption.

It is important to execute database backup and disaster planning effectively. Failure of effectively executing them can result in a lot of loss to the organization. Without good backup and disaster planning, the organization can lose essential data and even customer data that can be of negative impact on the company (Mullins, 2012). When the two are not properly integrated, it can cause confusion to workers in the organization when an event of disaster happens as employees will not understand what to do in such a situation. Therefore, the damage can be much when the plan and backup are not properly executed.

Realize Your Career Objectives With Microsoft Certification Courses Online

In today’s times, professional knowledge and skills are valued more than any other qualification in the industry. The candidates possessing practical skills and experience are given priority over those having merely theoretical knowledge. That’s why the professional certifications are becoming so popular and prevalent nowadays. Among such professional certifications, the Microsoft Certifications hold an important place of their own.

It was found in an IDC study conducted a few years back that Microsoft Office was among the top three skills sought by employers to hire candidates. Now, the MS Office package includes desktop applications like MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, MS Outlook, and MS Access, among several others. The total number of global users working on the MS Office apps on a routine basis is an astounding over 1 billion; students and professionals constitute a vast majority of these users. Remember, this is about one Microsoft package only; there are many other MS packages which are extensively used in different industries.

Free Palestine
Microsoft provides training material and certifications to help aspiring candidates to master its different software packages and make a good living out of that knowledge. A learner is required to go through proper training and study, which makes him/her fully prepared to sit for a Microsoft Certification Exam. This training and subsequent certification examination are not conducted by Microsoft directly, but through its training associates, called Microsoft Partner Organizations. On clearing the examination for a particular Microsoft course, the relevant certificate is awarded to the candidate by Microsoft, which validates the skills learned and knowledge acquired by the student.

Microsoft certification courses online provide an effective and viable way to the full-time students and working professionals to upgrade their knowledge and professional profile. The popular Microsoft courses online include MS Office Training, MCSE, MCSA, ASP.NET, Microsoft Dynamics, SQL Server, and CRM, among others. These courses go a long way towards helping you realize your career objectives and making you achieve career success.

Multisoft Virtual Academy is an established online training organization and an authorized Microsoft Partner organization as well. They have on offer a variety of professional career building online courses for students and working individuals. There are many highly sought-after Microsoft online courses offered by them. You can choose the course(s) of your choice out of those on offer.