Waste Water and Sewage

Executive Summary
The ICS project provides the solution to the Waste, Water and the Sewage systems through the provision of remote and local control of the movement of the turbulence of the liquid and aqueous solutions. The ICS system incorporates the combination of different integrated systems that control pressure regulates the speed as well as controlling the gate valves in water catchment areas. The ICS system implements the SCADA technology to take the digital management and control of the wastewater and the sewage. The SCADA technology applies the sensor approach methodology whereby the sensor mechanism gets involved in managing and controlling the intake and the pumps used at the various points in the industrial system. The gadgets controlled include the water pumps the distributors and the purifying centers. The SCADA automates the process of the water supply to enhance proportional distribution of water in industries, factories, urban centers, rural areas, the domestic utilization and the agricultural operations like irrigation. The ICS-SCADA system gets applied in the Waste and Sewage system control and disposal. The SCADA systems monitor the discrete data and information concerning the entry of the waste material within the conduit pipes. The applications of the SCADA in the ICS include the pressure hydraulic pumps utilized in the boreholes gas and oil distributing industries.

ICS Industry Architecture Being Designed
The ICS system shall incorporate the utilization of the hardware and the software integration of materials and components. The structure and the design of the ICS-SCADA system shall include the user interface architectural design, the backend and the front end operation interface. The ICS-SCADA systems architecture incorporates the relational and the non-relational database design. The design of the ICS-SCADA control and management structure shall implement the three tires and the two tire client-server based systems to ensure multiple computer-based operations. The system hardware and software components include the dedicated Remote Terminal Units (RTU) and the Radio Telemetry Units for running and controlling the control algorithms for the flow control (Brodsky, & Radvanovsky, 2011). The architecture also incorporates the input and the output systems for the displaying of the graphics, charts and diagrams for the monitored and analyzed values. The video display monitors and the telnet oriented video conferencing system shall get embedded in different terminals to enhance the remote and local troubleshooting and diagnosing of the entire system. The ICS-SCADA system shall incorporate the electromagnetic field sensors for the detection of flaws and dangers imposed within the system to relay the alarms and notifications to end users. The system architecture shall incorporate the installation of the storage devices interlinked with the data and information repository backup systems. The storage system shall implement the VMware cloud computing system to facilitate the storage of data and information for the future decision making. The ICS-SCADA system architecture shall take into consideration the installation and embedding of the artificial intelligent systems to enhance big data analysis as well as data mining and data warehousing for the waste, water, and the sewage control.

1. Overview

The SCADA project shall implement the Redundant Fiber Optic and the Ethernet network. The system shall use the Node system of linking the World Wide Web interface. The proposed SCADA system within the Waste, Water and the Sewage system shall involve the replacement of the Unix SCADA systems with the improved redundant SCADA systems. The project team shall design a comprehensive system that incorporates the mesh network topology. The network topology shall link over 5000 data points using the SCADA System and connect the complete installation and integration of the control systems (Brodsky, & Radvanovsky, 2011).

2. Statement of Need
The government and the water treatment center shall provide the solution to the general public industries and the agricultural sectors through the installation of the water treatment points and plants in different stages. The current problem of impure water requires the application of the sewers and the pump stations in the water treatment and catchment areas. The solution on the waste dumping and flow require the installation of the waste and water treatment plant at various points of water flow. The sewage control and management problem require the implementation of the ICS-SCADA sludge treatment plant in the urban and the industrial areas (Pramod, et al…, 2013). The various treatment points require monitoring of flow turbulence to regulate the speed and pressure of the materials on the transit network.

3. Detailed Description
The ICS-SCADA system shall incorporate the operational interfaces that gather and conduct the entire system control at the various routes and the section of the interface. The operational strategies shall incorporate the implementation of the SCADA Human Machine Interface (HMI) (Dzung, et al…, 2005). The system shall get embedded to the network terminals and the links to facilitate easier reading and interpretation of data and information. The system shall apply the simplified user capabilities over the entire system that guarantee operational and implementation friendly.

ICS Network Architecture
The main physical and logical devices implemented in the ICS-SCADA system involve the processors, the controllers, and the RTU’s. The entire system shall incorporate the connection of the devices via the neutral fiber optic and the Ethernet network. The processing unit shall manage and control the input and the output materials within the SCADA systems. The controllers shall include the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) responsible for automation of observing and analyzing of data and information (IEEE Guide for the Commissioning of Electrical Systems in Hydroelectric Power Plants, 1998). PLC allows easy programming of different applications. The Physical Control Systems (PCS) controls the movement of materials by regulating the speed and pressure. The Remote Terminal Units (RTU’s) have the responsibility for facilitating synchronization between pumps and the sensor mechanisms. The RTU’s adjusts the data and information according to the analysis within the system.

Telenursing

Introduction
Telenursing is the utilization of technology to conduct nursing practice and deliver nursing care. The use of technology has changed the delivery medium of nursing care. It has necessitated competencies related to its use to deliver nursing care. Practitioners engaged in telenursing plan, assess, evaluate and intervene the outcomes of nursing care. Technologies commonly used in this practice include computers, Internet, telephones, telemonitoring equipment and digital assessment tools. The term telehealth is used to describe the breadth of health services provided through communication technologies. The paper will explore telenursing as a specialty of telehealth. Advantages and disadvantages for the patient and legal and ethical principles for the nurse of this technology will be explored. These will be used as the basis for decision-making and whether it is a good fit for me.

Advantages and disadvantages for the patient
Advantages
Diagnosis and Consultation
Research evidence shows increased success of diagnosis of diseases. Telenursing has productively been used as a tool for diagnosing acute conditions including leukemia. In addition to diagnosis, nurses can provide educational sessions or other patient education efforts. Telenursing has been shown to be a successful undertaking for nurses in patient education as it offers two-way video and audio technology. Nurses also have benefited from consultations through telehealth tools. Just as in patient education, nurses can use the two-way audio and video technology to consult with other providers. For example, home health nurses may use technology to consult with physicians or specialists regarding a particular patient (Hebda & Czar, 2013).

Monitoring and Surveillance
Adherence and compliance problems are among the various issues that are essential to achieving patient safety. After patients leave a facility, they take responsibility for their own health care at home. Patients may not always follow treatment plans as directed by providers or physician due to various factors, including wrong understanding and miscommunication of the treatment plan, complex treatment schedule that requires additional guidance for the patients to comprehend and the lack of access to facilities required for the treatment plan. This can cause negative outcomes and creates safety issues for the patient. Therefore, these technologies provide nurses with efficient tools of caring for patients. The use of these technologies improves adherence or compliance to the prescribed regimen of care. They also allow effective symptom management. Telenursing is one strategy that nurses currently use to monitor and communicate with patients beyond the acute care setting. It also reduces health care utilization rates for acute care services by reducing visits to the Emergency Department (Hebda & Czar, 2013).

Clinical and Health Services outcomes
Telenursing has been associated with an improvement in clinical and health service outcomes. Technologies have been used in the management of chronic conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure and diabetes. Mortality and morbidity are the outcomes measured for these patients. Telenursing shows better outcomes in these areas. More specifically, telenursing technology has been shown to be an important tool in health intervention. For example, nurses can induce communication to help patient reduce HbA1c levels. They may also offer assistance to patients with traumatic brain injury in their transitioning from the hospital to the community. In addition to these technologies, other devices and applications are also making a difference in patient health care and safety. Essentially, telehealth technologies have replaced traditional care as practical alternatives (Hebda & Czar, 2013).

Reduction of cost
With telephone-based telenursing, there is relatively no technical setup required for interaction or cost to the patient. Many individuals own a cell phone in their home that can be utilized during sessions. Often, nurses limit telephone discussions to education or counseling as there are no visual cues for the telenurse. Technologies offer more and broader potential for telenursing practice. With telehealth technologies, patient access to care is improved; adherence to care increases and providers network with each other improves. Nurses can also closely monitor safety of patients at homes or alternative living facilities. The evident improvement in patient’s outcome has an indirect impact on cost of delivery of services (Hebda & Czar, 2013).

Disadvantages
As the use of technology increases in nursing profession, cost, privacy, autonomy, security and confidentiality issues have emerged. Facilities invest heavily in the security of patient information. These measures call for significant allocation of resources interms of human resources and money. Thus, the use of telecommunication increases the costs of purchase and operations of these equipments. These costs are passed on to consumers of health. Patients meet these costs through charges to health services. Health organizations are also faced with continued threat of as the need for confidentiality and security of patient data remain in the forefront of telenursing. On the other hand, Laws and regulations continue to place requirements for the protection of personal information. Data breach incidents have more impact than government fines, publicized lawsuits, and labor or union disputes. Breaches also have an impact on patients. Another disadvantage of telenursing is the technicality associated with the use of specific technologies. Telehealth technology differs and can range from telephone calls postoperatively to live, interactive voice and video patient education to using a popular video game system and downloadable data devices (Schlachta et al., 2010).

Legal and ethical principles for the nurse
With telenursing, confidentiality remains a concern that must always be addressed. Telehealth sessions must remain confidential interaction between a provider and a patient. Information privacy is the relationship between technology, collection and sharing of data, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and related issues surrounding them. Privacy concerns exist when there is sensitive information or personally identifiable information that might be of interest to other parties. Maintenance of information privacy is a risk management issue for any organization (Greenberg, 2000).

The security risks increase with the extraordinary utilization of internet services due to the advent of cloud computing. Hence, training is a necessary component of an organization’s security practices. Hospitals are forced to instead focus on making information system users intrinsic to the security processes through awareness, training and information rather than focusing purely on implementing technologies. Technologies such as firewalls, intrusion detection system, intrusion prevention system, antivirus content filtering and encryption are commonly implemented to reduce the risk of cyber attacks. While such technologies are widely available to help hospitals mitigate the risk of intentional and unintentional threats, their effectiveness is limited if security threats and risks fail to focus on user intrinsic components of the organization’s ICT system. Computer dependency, false sense of entitlement and ethical flexibility increases the security risk to the disadvantage of the medical facility. This exposes health facilities to risks of security and data breach. In the long run, this may compromise patients’ safety (Greenberg, 2000).

Conclusion and Recommendations
Innovative technologies are employed in nursing practice to improve patient care and thus improve safety. Technologies range from the ubiquitous computing to simple telephone and only promise more in the future. The research on telenursing practice shows significant benefits related to consultations, diagnosis surveillance and monitoring of patients, technology advancement and clinical and health services outcomes. These areas have considerable patient safety concerns. On the other hand, special concerns in relation to patient safety have emerged with this method of health care delivery. As the use of technology increases in nursing profession, cost, privacy, autonomy, security and confidentiality issues have emerged. A job in telenursing is in my future. The pro of this decision is that I will get to work in a field that has shown high potential of growth in the future. The con of this decision is that ability to safeguard data is important as personal information increasingly continues to be collected.

Understand Legal and Ethical Issues of Assisted Suicide

1. Discuss the legal rules and regulations on assisted suicide: one state legalizes the assisted suicide, and the other state does not.

In the United States, Oregon and Washington have legalized physician-assisted suicide. This law established by states provides citizens in the state with a right to assisted suicide commonly known as ‘death with dignity.’ In these states, physicians are empowered to aid patients to end their life and have been provided with a legal excuse to a charge of assisted suicide. The law in these states gives specific conditions when and under what circumstances a patient can be allowed to get assistance to end their life. Some of the requirements include that the patient is expected to die within a specified period and that the procedure must follow certain consent guidelines.

In states where there is no law legalizing physician-assisted suicide, an individual or a physician is guilty of promoting suicide attempt when they intentional leads to or assists another person attempt suicide.

2. Discuss the legal issues on assisted suicide (e.g., 2nd-degree murder).

The legal issues arising from physician-assisted suicide is that doctors can be charged with second-degree murder as they would be killing or aiding in the death of a patient intentionally. The legal perspective of homicide is described by the act of bringing about their death or assisting in ending their life, which is the act of assisted suicide. In care facilities, a legal issue arises when a doctor whose responsibility is to do good, aids in the death of a patient who requests assistance to commit suicide. The doctor may be charged and found guilty of assisting another person to commit suicide.

3. Discuss the ethical issues of assisted suicide (e.g., right to die).

Various ethical issues arising from traditions of nursing and medicine have led to opposition of assisted suicide by nursing and medical organizations. The patient’s in care facilities have a right to know their prognosis to make decisions concerning the implementation of life-prolonging treatment. Although patients have a right to make a decision about what they want, the ethical issue that arises is whether they are mentally competent and can make properly informed end of life decisions about their condition. Also, an ethical issue that arises from a patient who has a right to die and seeking to end their life since they are suffering is whether the suffering should be viewed according to the patient’s view or considered in other people’s perspective. An ethical issue on assisted suicide on an individual who has a right to die is whether the approach used is widely acceptable.

4. Shall the person (i.e., a family member) be charged a crime (e.g., murder), who has provided any kind of assistance to another person’s suicide?

A family member who provides any kind of assistance to another individual so as to assist end their life is guilty and may be charged with a crime of manslaughter. The crime is that the person purposely aids another commit suicide regardless of whether the patient was willing or made own decision to end their life. The kind of assistance may include giving advice on how to end life, giving a book that provides guidelines on suicide or even providing pills or medicine or other physical means that causes death.

5. Your feedback and solutions to the issues of assisted suicide, legal and ethical

The subject of assisted suicide whether by a family member or an organization or a physician raises sharp contrasting opinions. Individuals commit or have thoughts of committing suicide for various reasons that range from ending the suffering caused by terminal illnesses or other problems. Governments and states should formulate and enforce laws that prohibit assisted suicide without proper guidelines or advice. The individuals seeking advice on assisted suicide or those who want to commit suicide should have adequate knowledge of the outcome of their actions. Federal and state government should also increase assistance to patients who are suffering or have pain due to some illness.