Factors that influence disease

Hemophilia
Case

A 24-year-old white man has a diagnosis of hemophilia at the age of about 5 to 6 years. He has recently visited the hematology clinic for the follow-up after hospitalization for an accidental knife cut that caused excessive bleeding. The patient has a history of excessive bleeding from tooth extraction, excessive bruising since childhood and the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the past three years. He has reported chronic pain of his joints and ankles and denied hemarthroses. The patient has given reports about the episodes of excessive bleeding treatment by use of factor VIII and fresh frozen plasma (Remor, 2013).

The patient has the FVIII deficiency (hemophilia A) which is a common type of hemophilia that affects about 5, 000 males at births. The disease approximately affects about 25, 000 people in the United States. Individuals with hemophilia suffer from deficiencies in clotting factor. The mild hemophilia bleedings problems do mainly occur after surgery, trauma and injury. The condition can accompany some symptoms. Almost 25% of the population with hemophilia has the mild deficiency. Those with moderate hemophilia experience bleeding episodes after minor injuries and may lead to spontaneous episodes of bleeding. The server hemophilia happens after trauma, injury and surgery. It has the spontaneous bleeding into muscles and joints characteristics. Recurrent bleeding of the joints also known as hemarthrosis causes hemophilic arthropathy that causes disability at a very young age (Department of Genetics 2015).

Causes

Hemophilia is a disease happening as a result of gene mutation, and it is a genetic disease. About 70% of hemophilia cases are inheritable from parents. However, the other 30% of patients do not have the family history. In such cases, the main cause of the condition is by a spontaneous gene mutation during the fertilization stage. Hemophilia is also a condition that is linked to sex since the FIX and FVIII geneses are found on the X chromosome. It is the chromosome X that determines the gender of the baby. Thus, the condition’s clinical manifestation has a link to sex. Therefore, females may not express the bleeding symptom like the males (McPhee, & Hammer, 2012).

Pathophysiology
The main source of factor VIII (FVIII) production is thought to be from the reticuloendothelial and the liver system. Transplantation of the liver can correct FVIII deficiency to persons with hemophilia. It is because of the increasing cases of individuals with mild hemophilia having progressive liver diseases. Thus, it is an indication that the liver is the main site for FVIII synthesis (Cayir, Yavuzer, and Sayli, 2014).

The RNA messenger for FVIII is also detectable in spleen and liver among other issues. Studies indicate that the production of FVIII in cells lines that are transferable show that after synthesis the FVIII shifts to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. It is then within other protection that functions in regulating secretion. It particularly regulates the immunoglobulin binding protein in which it has to dissociate in a process that depends on energy. The FVIII’s signal peptide cleavage, as well as oligosaccharides, also takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum. The calnexin, chaperone proteins, and calreticulin, enhance both FVIII degradation and secretion. Regarding genes, the location of the FVIII (F8C) is at the X chromosome arm at Xq28 region. This gene becomes large comprising of 25 intones and 26 exons. A mature FVIII will have about 2332 amino acids. FVIII deficiency is as a result of gene inversion that causes disrupt to the FVIII gene. The disruptions are insertions, point mutations, and deletions. The low levels of FVIII happen as results of external FVIII gene defects (Huether, &McCance, 2012).

Gameyogi’s Guide: Mastering the Art of Writing Interactive Dialogues!

Introduction

In the realm of gaming, where storytelling intertwines with immersive experiences, the importance of well-crafted interactive dialogues cannot be overstated. As experts in the field, Gameyogi understands the pivotal role that dialogues play in captivating players and enhancing gameplay.

Importance of Interactive Dialogues in Gaming

Interactive dialogues serve as a bridge between players and the virtual worlds they inhabit. They enable players to interact with characters, make decisions, and shape the course of the narrative. A well-written dialogue can evoke emotions, deepen character connections, and drive the storyline forward.

Understanding the Role of Dialogues in Games

In gaming, dialogues serve multiple purposes. They contribute to character development by revealing personalities, motivations, and backstories. Moreover, dialogues facilitate plot advancement by providing essential information and guiding players through quests. Additionally, they enhance player immersion by creating a sense of agency and involvement within the game world.

The Elements of Engaging Dialogues

Successful dialogues are characterized by several key elements. Firstly, they contribute to character development by showcasing unique traits and perspectives. Secondly, they propel the plot forward by introducing conflicts, challenges, and plot twists. Lastly, they immerse players in the gaming experience by offering meaningful choices and consequences.

Challenges in Writing Interactive Dialogues

Crafting interactive dialogues poses various challenges for game writers. Maintaining consistency in character voices, balancing exposition with action, and accommodating player choices are some common hurdles. Moreover, ensuring dialogues remain engaging and relevant throughout the game presents an ongoing challenge.

Gameyogi’s Approach to Crafting Compelling Dialogues

At Gameyogi, we adopt a holistic approach to writing interactive dialogues. Our team of experienced writers combines storytelling expertise with a deep understanding of game design principles. By focusing on character authenticity, narrative coherence, and player agency, we ensure that every dialogue enhances the gaming experience.

Tips and Strategies for Writing Interactive Dialogues

For aspiring game writers, mastering the art of writing interactive dialogues requires both skill and finesse. Here are some practical tips to elevate your dialogue-writing game:

Know Your Audience: Understand the preferences and expectations of your target players.
Establish Character Voice: Create distinct voices for each character to enhance authenticity.
Keep it Concise: Avoid verbosity and prioritize clarity to maintain player engagement.
Focus on Player Choices: Design dialogues that offer meaningful decisions and consequences.
Test and Iterate: Solicit feedback from playtesters and iterate based on their responses.
Examples of Successful Games with Great Dialogues

Several games have set the benchmark for exceptional dialogue writing. Titles like “The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt,” “Mass Effect series,” and “Undertale” are celebrated for their compelling characters and dynamic conversations. By studying these games, aspiring writers can glean valuable insights into effective dialogue design.

Conclusion

In conclusion, mastering the art of writing interactive dialogues is essential for game writers looking to create immersive and memorable gaming experiences. By understanding the role of dialogues, overcoming common challenges, and adopting effective strategies, writers can elevate their craft and captivate players worldwide.

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Compare and Contrast Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Models

Introduction
SDLC is a conceptual model integrated into the system development process that consists of a series of phases to plan, analyze, design, implement and support an information system.

Seven-Step SDLC Model
Planning
Planning is the first phase of the seven-step SDLC model and is essential in determining the necessity of a proposed system so as to achieve efficiently and effectively the organization’s strategic goals. Planning phase entails of determining the project scope and the IT specialists and analysts define the location for the execution of the system functions. (Ahituv, Neumann & Zviran 2002)

System analysis
System analysis involves the IT specialists and analysts, and the end-users to work together to identify the need for change or the source of the problem. (Babers, 2015) The development team that got identified in the planning phase works together with the system users in modeling and the definition of the business process in detail.

Design
This phase involves the determination of the information requirements of the new system. (Shim, 2000) Simply the description of the necessary features, specifications, and operations of the new system get done in detail.

Development
The development phase involves the transformation of the design documents into the actual system. (Ruparelia 2010) System designers build and program information technologies and information system projects at this stage.

Testing
The purpose of integration and systems testing is to determine whether the new system meets the set of business objectives set out in the planning phase and to check for bugs, errors, and interoperability. The typical approach to testing of the design is to move from an individual element to the view of the entire system. (Norton, & McGraw-Hill, 2002)

Implementation
The implementation phase entails of the distribution of the new system to all the organization’s personnel and installation in the various departments. After installation in the departments, the workers get training on the operation of the new system. (Crnkovic, & Larsson, 2002) They also receive documentation such as system manuals and user guide to instruct them on the use of the system.

Operation and Maintenance

The final phase of the seven-step SDLC model involves the evaluation and maintenance of the new system. During the systems support and security phase, the IT staff is responsible for the maintenance, improvement, and protection of the new system. Maintenance involves correction of errors and adaptation to the changes of the environment. Improvement involves the alterations to provide new features and benefits while protection includes the safeguarding the new system from internal and external threats. (Shelly, & Rosenblatt, 2011)

Four-step SDLC Model
Definition Phase
The definition phase is the initial phase of the four-step model and consists of preliminary analysis, feasibility study, information analysis, and system design. The preliminary analysis gets used to determine the problem that requires a new system or system modification in an organization. The feasibility study also determines the necessity of the project and draws a preliminary plan on how it should proceed if justified. The information analysis consists of an analysis of the present system, the determination of the information requirements and the conceptual design of the proposed system. The system design entails of developing a program and procedure specifications that would get used by IT specialists and developers of the proposed system.

Construction Phase
The construction phase comprises of the programming, procedure and development. (Ruparelia, 2010) The programming activity involves the coding and testing of the computer programs on the computer system. The procedure and development include writing and the testing of procedures for various users and operators. The programming results in computer instructions whereas the procedure and development results in instructions meant to guide the people involved in the proposed system.

Implementation Phase
The third phase is the implementation phase that involves conversion in Information systems technologies. The implementation phase involves the training of the workers that will operate and use the new system, breaking the system in, and finally acceptance testing by the end-user. (Li, 1990)

Operation and Testing Phase

The last step of the four-step model comprises of operation and maintenance, post audit, and termination. The new system at this stage operates as a production facility, processing and producing information, and at the same time undergoing maintenance. Throughout the functioning of the system, periodic post audit review forms control points. The purpose of the reviews is to indicate when the operation cycle of the current system approaches the end, and a new cycle life get indicated. The current system gets terminated when its operation in the organization is not worthwhile. (Ahituv, Neumann & Zviran 2002)

Compare and Contrast the seven-step and four-step SDLC Models
The seven-step and four-step models are systematic processes used in system development by organizations and businesses. They also have closely related processes though with different activities at each phase. Both processes are used to produce new systems that assist in corporate transactions, the connection of businesses and office data, and also support users in the architecture of strategy. The life cycle of the two models starts at initiation and ends after termination. (Isaias & Issa 2015) However, there are several differences between the two SDLC models. The seven-step model is highly preferable and produces high-quality systems because it entails of more stages that allow the solving of complex problems, end-user involvement, and flexibility. Unlike the four-step SDLC model, the seven-step SDLC model consumes more time and resources in building, implementation, and construction of information systems. The suitability of the seven-step SDLC model is handling complex problems that require more concentration. The four-step SDLC model gets suited for the less complex issues that get needed in a short period.